GERMAN SONDERWEG THESIS

Even the Ethnic German Register Deutsche Volksliste , which was to be a pathway to citizenship for those deemed Germanizable, reflected the tensions between a political and racialized Germanness. After all, the ideological belief of many Nazis that the east should and could be Germanized was always tempered by practical concerns. Along with the old elites, many traditional and preindustrial norms, ways of thinking and modes of life also survived. April bis zum These local German activists could easily be ignored when needed, and it appears that their presence played only a secondary role. The German ” Sonderweg ” should be limited to the era of the Third Reich, but the strength of the particular German mentality [ Sonderbewusstsein ] that had arisen already with its opposition to the French Revolution and grew stronger after and must be emphasized. The Peculiarities of German History:

Lacking the experience of a successful revolution from below, schooled in a long tradition of bureaucratically led reforms from above, and challenged by a growing workers’ movement, the German bourgeoise appeared relatively weak and—compared with the West—almost “unbourgeois” [23]. The German Empire, In response, Heinrich August Winkler argued that there was a Sonderweg before , and that Germany as a country deeply influenced by the Enlightenment meant there was no point of comparison between Hitler on one hand, and Pol Pot and Stalin on the other [19]. Along with the old elites, many traditional and preindustrial norms, ways of thinking and modes of life also survived. His work is commonly seen as the basis for the later and more expansive Generalplan Ost of the SS.

Sonderweg – Wikipedia

What will one day become of all this is still completely unclear. Poland would seem ideal for making arguments about continuities in Sonderweeg imperial ambitions, expansionism and violence on the continent because Prussia and Germany controlled western Poland for over a century.

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Madajczyk, Okkupationspolitikp. Letter from Barbara to Heinrich, dated Feb. Thus it can be said that interpreting and revisiting the Eastern sources of the civilizational trouble was a process performed by the help of the West, then and now. The article suggests that a key similarity existed in German imaginations of the region as an imperial space to be dominated, but that these imaginations competed with ideology, agency and contingency in ggerman world wars. The case of Poland is instructive here.

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Die Kriegszielpolitik Des Kaiserlichen Deutschland Adam Tooze, The Wages of Destruction: Humanities Press, page Indeed, economic tensions deriving from high prices, low wages and scarcity of goods exacerbated the feelings of unfairness between German groups. The History of Nazi-Fascist Philosophy The General Government was to exist next to the Reich and to be, at least initially, a kind of Polish reservation. Today, the common spelling in German remains Lodz, but there has also been a noticeable increase in the use of the Polish diacritical markings.

This issue, along with the sheer thesjs of Jews in Poland, meant that the Germans could not possibly hope to avoid dealing with it in some way.

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As with the physical border of Germany, the internal borders of Germanness—or Polishness for that matter—remained unsettled. This is an article for the forthcoming Oxford Encyclopedia of Martin Luther and available online through the Oxford Research Encyclopedia in Religion see link Historians have regularly enlisted Luther in an expansive, sweeping vision of the German Reformation and the emergence of the modern German nation-state with Otto von Bismarck.

This ambivalence towards the city could be seen in the case of Theodor Schieder, who served as president of the Association of Historians in Germany from to Through comparisons with England, France, the United States, or simply “the West”, they attempted to identify the peculiarities of Germany history, those structures and processes, experiences, and turning points, which while they may not have led directly to National Socialism, nevertheless hindered the long germwn development of liberal democracy in Germany and eventually facilitated the triumph of fascism.

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His work is commonly seen as the basis for the later and more expansive Generalplan Thesks of the SS.

The liberal university professors, Metternich’s fiercest foes and now so prominent inwere often far from the cloudy idealists pictured in our textbooks.

InPolish—Jewish tensions connected with the elections to the Duma had led to an outpouring of anti-Jewish sentiment, including a boycott that was still in place in Donderweg more broadly, this article cuts to the core of how to conceptualize violence and time in modern German history.

Schieder has recently drawn criticism both for his support of eastern expansion and his radicalism in dealing with ethnically mixed areas. In a speech, Hildebrand denied there had been a Sonderwegand claimed that the Sonderweg only applied to the “special case” of the Nazi dictatorship [19] In a essay, Herman went further and wrote:. Traditional, aristocratic, premodern society geeman an emerging capitalist, bourgeois, modernizing society.

german sonderweg thesis

Warsaw became part of another General Government, with the seat in Cracow. Shirerportrayed Nazism as the inevitable result of German history, reflecting unique flaws sonddrweg “German national character” that went back to the days of Martin Lutherif not earlier. There were complaints that officials in the General Government had intimidated Germans in Tomaschow.

german sonderweg thesis

Poliakov wrote that even if not all Germans supported the Holocaust, it was “tacitly accepted by the popular will” [16]. The public pronouncements about the success of German resettlement and the presentation of Germanness in black or white terms only revealed that the soonderweg vaunted national community Volksgemeinschaft had not materialized there.

Although the initiative came from Greiser, 97 the choice of the name was highlighted as a decision made by Hitler himself. Demokratie Zwischen Lenin Und Hitler.